Horseshoe magnets

The history of Horseshoe magnets
In 1819, it was discovered that a compass needle was deflected when electric current was passing through a piece of metal and many other experiments surrounding magnetism were attempted after then. These experiments ended up with a success by William Sturgeon wrapping wire around a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron and running electric current through the wires that create the first horseshoe magnet.

Why Do Magnets Have a Horseshoe Shape?

Magnets with horseshoe shape have more strength than magnetswith bar shape as the U-shape places two poles closer to each other and in the same plane, which allows magnetic lines of flux are able to flow along a more direct path between the two poles and concentrate the magnetic field
Magnets with horseshoe shape have a higher coercivity to reduce the demagnetization over time compared with magnets with disc/ring/cylinder /bar shape while making neodymium or smco magnet with horseshoe shape does not the normal practice, as they are brittle and not suitable for U-shape design. However, alnico magnets are still widely manufactured in horseshoe shapes as they have excellent hardness and high temperature resistance at a low price point